Saturday, December 19, 2009
Ancient cave paintings. Ancient hunting scene painted in a cave in Santa Cruz, Patagonia, Southern Argentina. (Credit: iStockphoto/Pablo Caridad)
Music Went With Cave Art In Prehistoric Caves
ScienceDaily (July 5, 2008) — Thousands of years later, we can view stone-age art on cave walls, but we can't listen to the stone-age music that would have accompanied many of the pictures. In many sites, flutes made of bone are to be found nearby.
Iegor Reznikoff of the University of Paris reports that the most acoustically resonant place in a cave -- where sounds linger or reverberate the most -- was also often the place where the pictures were densest.
And when the most-resonant spot was located in a very narrow passageway too difficult for painting, red marks are often found, as if the resonance maximum had to be signified in some way. This correlation of paintings and music, Reznikoff says, provides "the best evidence for the ritualistic meanings of the paintings and of the use of the adorned caves."
Proceeding into the direction of the best resonance (or echo) that answers to vocal sounds, one is naturally lead to panels with pictures. At the very least, in the dark caves, where hand-held light sources fall off in effectiveness, singing (and listening for resonant reactions) proved to be the best sonar-like way of exploring the caves. A significant returning sound gave some hint of a usable hall ahead in the dark.
On the 5th and 6th of July, Reznikoff will conduct a tour of a prehistoric cave where he will show some examples of the sound-picture relationship. He will also lead a visit to the Basilica of Vezelay where he will illustrate the magnificent resonance. (Talk 4pAAa1, " Sound resonance in prehistoric times: A study of Paleolithic painted caves and rocks" was presented July 3, 2008.)
Labels: music and art in caves
Labels: related sites
One of the early stone tools from Wonderwerk Cave. (Credit: Photo M. Chazan)
Archaeological Discovery: Earliest Evidence Of Our Cave-Dwelling Human Ancestors
ScienceDaily (Dec. 21, 2008) — A research team led by Professor Michael Chazan, director of the University of Toronto's Archaeology Centre, has discovered the earliest evidence of our cave-dwelling human ancestors at the Wonderwerk Cave in South Africa.
Stone tools found at the bottom level of the cave — believed to be 2 million years old — show that human ancestors were in the cave earlier than ever thought before. Geological evidence indicates that these tools were left in the cave and not washed into the site from the outside world.
Archaeological investigations of the Wonderwerk cave — a South African National Heritage site due to its role in discovering the human and environmental history of the area — began in the 1940s and research continues to this day.
Using a combination of dating methods it has been possible to date the bottom level reached by Peter Beaumont in the front part of the cave to 2 million years ago.
A small number of very small stone tools have been recovered from excavations in this level. Geological evidence indicates that these tools were deposited in the cave by human ancestors, not washed into the site from the outside.
The combination of stone tools indicating the presence of human ancestors and the dating of the level leads to the conclusion that human ancestors (hominids) were in the cave 2 million years ago. This is the earliest evidence for intentional cave occupation by human ancestors.
There were a number of species of hominids in southern Africat 2 million years ago. The most likely candidate as the manufacturer of the stone tools found at Wonderwerk is Homo habilis.
The oldest known stone tools from sites in Ethiopia date to 2.4 million years. The Wonderwerk Cave discoveries are those close in age to the very earliest known stone tools and similar in date to the bottom levels at Olduvai Gorge.
How the site was dated
The deposits at Wonderwerk Cave built up over time so that the deeper one excavates the layers become older. The trick is to figure out exactly how old the levels are. We used two methods that together provide a secure date.
For Paleomagnetic Dating Hagai Ron of the Hebrew University took small samples of soil from the entire sequence (over fifty samples). These samples allow him to measure changes in he earth’s magnetic field and to correlate the Wonderwerk sequence with a global timescale for changes in the magnetic field (known as reversals).
For Cosmogenic Burial Age Ari Matmon, also from the Hebrew University, took soil samples and carefully prepared them in the lab. He then sent these samples to an atomic accelerator in the United States where a procedure to measure isotopes, much like the method used in carbon dating, was carried out. Unlike carbon dating, Cosmogenic Burial Age dating can provide very old dates.
Why was this so difficult? Most well dated early sites are in East Africa where there are volcanic ash layers that can be dated using the Argon method. In southern Africa we lack these ash layers so that we need to develop new methods. The first use of Cosmogenic Burial Age dating in South Africa was at the Cradle of Humankind. Our results show the value of this method, particularly when combined with Paledating, for archaeological research both in the region and globally.
About Wonderwerk Cave
The Wonderwerk Cave is located in Northern Cape Province, South Africa between Danielskuil and Kuruman. The cave formed by water action in the Dolemite rocks of the Asbestos Hills. This rock formation is over 2 billion years old, some of the oldest rock on earth, so we do not know when exactly the cave formed.
The cave runs 130 meters from front to back. Wonderwerk discovered was discovered when local farmers dug up large parts of the cave in the 1940’s to sell the sediments for fertilizer. Subsequently a series of brief archaeological excavations began. Peter Beaumont of the McGregor Museum carried out major excavations at the site between 1978-1993.
Chimps Have Been Found Using Caves For Shelter
ScienceDaily (Apr. 12, 2007) — Chimpanzees in Senegal apparently have much in common with our earliest human ancestors.
A month after Iowa State University Assistant Professor of Anthropology Jill Pruetz reported chimpanzees at her Fongoli research site are using spear-shaped tools to hunt, her new study indicates those same chimps are also seeking shelter in caves to get out of the extreme African heat. The National Geographic Society-funded research is the first to document regular chimpanzee cave use.
Pruetz' paper, titled "Evidence of Cave Use by Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal: Implications for Behavioral Thermoregulation," will be published in an upcoming issue of Primates, a professional journal.
The paper reports that the chimpanzees' cave use was based primarily on indirect evidence -- feeding traces, feces and hairs -- gathered from one cave from January through December 2004. Supplemental data from observational records was also collected from May 2001 through March 2006. Pruetz has also witnessed the chimps entering and exiting the cave.
"I talked about it (chimps using caves) at a meeting in Japan several years ago. I just kind of reported it and everyone was amazed," she said. "They thought it was great and nobody had ever heard anything like it, except that Jane Goodall actually came up to me after the talk and she said that she heard an incident in Mali where someone was doing a chimp survey and they surprised a bunch of chimps coming out of a cave. But that's the only other instance that anyone, as far as I know, has ever heard of it."
Chimps use caves to avoid African heat
In the paper, Pruetz concludes that the chimps' cave use is a response to heat at her Fongoli research site. She collected data on temperatures within Sakoto cave -- the largest cave within her site -- as well as the different habitats used by chimpanzees, such as gallery forest and woodland.
Her research found that chimps primarily use Sakoto cave as shelter during the hottest and driest times of the year, from October through May. The cave is several meters deep and located at the head of a shallow ravine, which was formed through water runoff from a plateau. Between 2001 and 2004, average annual daily temperature within the Sakoto cave was 24.2 degrees Celsius, compared with 29.6 degrees in the woodland habitat and 24.6 in grassland habitat -- both located approximately 30 meters from the cave and at the edge of the Sakoto ravine. Pruetz attributes the lower grassland temperature to wind. In the Sakoto gallery forest habitat approximately 20 meters from the cave, temperatures averaged 26.4 degrees Celsius.
"It seems very much cooler when you go into the cave, but I wanted to make sure I took temperature measurements in the cave and different habitats," said Pruetz. "It is significantly cooler in the cave and the only time they (chimps) use the cave is during the dry season when you have the hottest temperatures outside.
"They're (chimps) just using it as a way to avoid the heat," she said. "They just lie in there and rest. They'll bring food in and eat it in there, and groom. They sort of just hang out and relax."
Maximum temperatures produce primate heat stress
Pruetz wrote in the article that maximum temperatures may be a more important measure of heat stress to primates than average temperatures. And that stress may be what's driving the chimps into the caves, although the explanation may not be that simple.
"While cave use by Fongoli chimpanzees appears to correlate with temperature, a number of factors probably work in association to influence this behavior, underscoring the complexity of the relationship between climate, habitat, and the behavior of hominoids inhabiting a dry, open environment," she wrote.
But maybe it shouldn't be so surprising that chimpanzees are using caves after all.
"It shouldn't be surprising that chimps are using caves," said Pruetz. "If you look at the scientific name of the chimps, the species name is troglodytes, which means cave-dwelling."
Pruetz will return to Senegal in May. She and her Iowa State graduate students plan to measure relative humidity in the different habitats used in this research.
The study was supported by grants from the National Geographic Society, National Science Foundation, Leakey Foundation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Great Ape Conservation Grant, Primate Conservation Inc., and Iowa State University.
Labels: early cave dwellers
World's Earliest Nuclear Family Found
ScienceDaily (Nov. 18, 2008) — The earliest evidence of a nuclear family, dating back to the Stone Age, has been uncovered by an international team of researchers, including experts from the University of Bristol. The researchers dated remains from four multiple burials discovered in Germany in 2005.The 4,600-year-old graves contained groups of adults and children buried facing each other – an unusual practice in Neolithic culture.
One of the graves was found to contain a female, a male and two children. Using DNA analysis, the researchers established that the group consisted of a mother, father and their two sons aged 8-9 and 4-5 years: the oldest molecular genetic evidence of a nuclear family in the world (so far).
The burials, discovered and excavated at Eulau, Saxony-Anhalt, were also unusual for the great care taken in the treatment of the dead. The remains of thirteen individuals were found in total, all of whom had been interned simultaneously.
Intriguingly, the arrangement of the dead seemed to mirror their relations in life. Several pairs of individuals were buried face-to-face with arms and hands interlinked in many cases. All the burials contained children ranging from newborns up to 10 years of age and adults of around 30 years or older. Interestingly, there were no adolescents or young adults.
Many showed injuries that indicated they were the victims of a violent raid. One female was found to have a stone projectile point embedded in one of her vertebra and another had skull fractures. Several bodies also had defence injuries to the forearms and hands.
The researchers reconstruct this Stone Age tragedy using state-of-the-art genetics and isotope techniques, physical anthropology and archaeology.
Lead author Dr Wolfgang Haak of the University of Adelaide said: "By establishing the genetic links between the two adults and two children buried together in one grave, we have established the presence of the classic nuclear family in a prehistoric context in Central Europe – to our knowledge the oldest authentic molecular genetic evidence so far. Their unity in death suggests a unity in life. However, this does not establish the elemental family to be a universal model or the most ancient institution of human communities."
As well as establishing the biological relationships of the people buried at Eulau, the researchers were also able to shed light on their social organisation using strontium isotope analysis.
Hylke de Jong, a PhD student working on the Eulau graves at the University of Bristol said: "We measured strontium isotopes in their teeth to give us an indication of where these people spent their childhood. Strontium from the food you eat is incorporated into your teeth as they grow. We can relate the proportion of different strontium isotopes back to regions with different geology and identify the area where a person grew up."
Dr Alistair Pike, Head of Archaeology at the University of Bristol and co-Director of the project, continued: "The strontium analysis showed that the females spent their childhood in a different region from the males and children. This is an indication of exogamy (marrying out) and patrilocality (the females moving to the location of the males). Such traditions would have been important to avoid inbreeding and to forge kinship networks with other communities."
The burials described in detail in the article are now on permanent display in the newly renovated Landesmuseum Sachsen-Anhalt in Germany.
Labels: nuclear family burial
Thursday, November 26, 2009
China's Zhuang 2,ooo yr old Cave Painting
Labels: china cave painting
Friday, November 6, 2009
photos in news
LATEST PHOTOS IN THE NEWS
Labels: news pics
Sunday, November 1, 2009
Ancient Camels Butchered in Colorado, Stone Tools Show?
National Geographic News
Humans may have hunted down Ice Age camels 13,000 years ago on what are now the streets of Boulder, Colorado, a new analysis of ancient tools suggests.
Blood residue on stone blades found recently in a Boulder resident's backyard could be the first evidence that the implements were used to butcher horses and American camels.
The extinct camel species had almost no hump and was slightly taller than a modern camel, with a shoulder height of seven feet (about two meters).
The tools are thought to be products of the Clovis people, early Americans known for their distinctive spearheads.
"The really amazing thing about this kind of find is [that] it represents an instant in time," said research leader Douglas Bamforth, an anthropologist at the University of Colorado, Boulder.
More than likely, one or two humans buried the artifacts on the banks of an ancient stream with the intention of coming back later to collect them.
The stash, found accidentally in May 2008 by a landscaping crew, contained 83 stone tools ranging from well-crafted knives to small blades and axes.
Only a handful of such caches have ever been found, and the discovery may give researchers clues as to how the mysterious Clovis people lived.
For instance, close similarities between one two-sided tool found in the Boulder site and another from Wyoming suggests that craftmanship was shared between groups.
It also suggests that the Clovis journeyed vast distances, forging relationships along the way, said Bamforth, who presented his unpublished research at a recent meeting.
A "reasonable guess" is that the Clovis carried supplies of high-quality stone through game-rich but stone-poor regions where the material would be needed to make new tools, said Bruce Huckell, senior research coordinator at the University of New Mexico's Maxwell Museum of Anthropology.
The American camel, which went extinct at the end of the last ice age, roamed alongside many giant beasts—including woolly mammoths, dire wolves, sabertooths, and giant ground sloths.
But when asked about the tools' use in butchering camels, Huckell said blood residue tests can be controversial.
"Certainly it's exciting to see reports that indicate that a part-stone tool was used to butcher a particular animal in the remote past," Huckell said.
"[But it's] not a method that has met with universal acceptance among archaeologists."
Friday, October 2, 2009
Ardi- pre-Lucy Hominid Ancestor
slideshow available in article.
Click on url to access video if it does not print
Early view. An artist's rendition of Ardipithecus ramidus. See full slideshow.
Credit: © 2009, J. H. Matternes
Ancient Skeleton May Rewrite Earliest Chapter of Human Evolution
By Ann Gibbons
ScienceNOW Daily News
1 October 2009
Researchers have long argued about whether our early ancestors passed through a great-ape stage in which they looked like protochimpanzees, with short backs; arms adapted for swinging through the trees; and a pelvis and limbs adapted for knuckle-walking (Science, 21 November 1969, p. 953). This "troglodytian," or chimpanzee, model for early human behavior (named for the common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes) suggests that our ancestors lost many of the key adaptations still found in chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas, such as daggerlike canines and knuckle-walking, which those apes were thought to have inherited from a common ancestor.
Evidence has been hard to come by, however, because there are almost no fossils of early chimpanzees and gorillas. Until now, the oldest known skeleton of a human ancestor was Lucy, who proved in one stroke that our ancestors walked upright before they evolved big brains. But at 3.2 million years old, she was too recent and already too much like a human to reveal much about her primitive origins. As a result, researchers have wondered since her discovery in 1974, what came before her--what did the early members of the human family look like?
Now, that question is being answered in detail for the first time. A multinational team discovered the first parts of the Ar. ramidus skeleton in 1994 in Aramis, Ethiopia. At 4.4 million years old, Ardi is not the oldest fossil proposed as an early hominin, or member of the human family, but it is by far the most complete--including most of the skull and jaw bones, as well as the extremely rare pelvis, hands, and feet. These parts reveal that Ardi had an intermediate form of upright walking, a hallmark of hominins, according to the authors of 11 papers that describe Ardi and at least 35 other individuals of her species. But Ardi still must have spent a lot of time in the trees, the team reports, because she had an opposable big toe. That means she was probably grasping branches and climbing carefully to reach food, to sleep in nests, and to escape predators.
Labels: pre-Lucy hominid ancestor
Saturday, September 19, 2009
|Cast of the |
Kennewick Man's skull>
|Patrick Stewart |
(Star Trek's "Captain Picard")
Spitting image of the Kennewick Man
Pre-Indian Caucasoids in America
Colin, Son of Þeedrich
On July 28,1996 Will Thomas and Dave Deacy found a skeleton, later to be called the Kennewick Man, on the banks of the Columbia River in Washington State. They called the Benton County coroner's office, which then turned it over to Dr. Jim Chatters, a professor at Central Washington University, owner of Applied Paleoscience in Richland, Washington, and a local specialist in ancient bones who also happens to be married to an Indian woman. Immediately Dr. Chatters recognized the skull as Caucasoid and at first thought it might be that of an early 19th-century White pioneer, so he sent samples of the bones to an appropriate laboratory to be dated. Through advanced methods in radio carbon dating the Kennewick Man was found to be about 9,300 years old. The remains are the best preserved and fullest skeleton of the seven similar ones that have been discovered in North America. After many anthropologists and other scientists did further testing on these skeletons, they found out that, in one way or another, they all had Caucasoid features.1 Since 1938 archeologists throughout Western North America have been digging up artifacts from the later glacial era (approximately fourteen thousand to ten thousand years ago). Most of the skeletons and artifacts were found in the west; because the Eastern side of the continent is much more humid and acidic, which makes the long-term preservation of bones unlikely. The traits of most of these ancient artifacts differ from those of the artifacts we find in "Native American" cultures. Scientists have thus concluded that there was a large group of people who hunted large game, like mammoths and giant bison. They are called the Clovis people,2 named after discoveries at the Blackwater Draw site near Clovis, New Mexico.3 As I began to research the Caucasoid skeletons and other recent archeological findings, I found they had tools very similar to those of ancient European tribes, namely the Old World Solutrean people who also hunted large game. I then asked myself, who were the Clovis people and what happened to them?
A mammoth of the Kennwick Man's era
The validity of these facts and their relation to the time period during which the Clovis people roamed on the North American continent are well supported by advances in radio-carbon dating methods. In the past, scientists were often unable to date closely the artifacts and skeletons that were found. For a long time, this inablity hindered analysis, findings and conclusions. Finally, for political reasons the skeletons were proclaimed to be Indian, and they were just re-buried, in accordance with the Civil Rights Act of 1966.
Since 1938, when archaeologists started discovering artifacts related to the Clovis people, scientific proof has been difficult to establish. Recently radio-carbon dating has improved so much that we can easily find out how old an artifact such as the Kennewick man really is. As a result, we know that the Clovis people were among the first humans in North America.
Isotopic-carbon testing continues to reveal ever more. Studies of the Kennewick Man's bones indicate a high diet of marine food.4 Other nearby finds of bone needles close to the Kennewick Man's remains indicate that the Kennewick man may possibly have worn tailored clothing5. (This was much further advanced than the "Native American" technology; even after the Spanish had arrived in North America the Indians still wore little clothing.) These astonishing finds further tell us that the Kennewick man was not alone, but that he lived in a community of some sort; and he was very different from the Paleo-Indians and Archaic Indians. (In Spirit Cave, Nevada, for instance, anthropologists Douglas Owsley and Richard Jante studied ancient remains that were contemporary with those of the Kennewick man; they found other artifacts were "very different" from those that have any resemblance to the implements of recent "Native" Americans).6
Similarities with the Old World Solutrean People
In addition to scientific proof, there is the unexplained and unexplainable. The Clovis people came (either from across the Atlantic or - just possibly - across the steppes from Russia to Alaska and then down along the northwestern coast) as mysteriously as they disappeared, hunted mammoths, mastodon, giant bison, antelope, and other creatures which are now all extinct -- (just as the Clovis people did).7 There are remarkable similarities to the Old World Solutrean people, who lived in western and southern ice age Europe, and who also hunted large game from twenty-two to eighteen thousand years before the present. The Solutrean people (most likely, their shamans) drew many pictures of giant bison, mammoths and horses in caves discovered by archeologists and others.
Horses too were on the North American continent during the reign of the Clovis people, but scientists cannot explain what happened to them. Could the horses have been used by the Clovis people to hunt their game as they brought them from Europe, and did they die with the Clovis people? Did they get used as food just as the large game that the Clovis people hunted? Was that how the horses became extinct as the late glacial era came to an end? These questions are still unexplained and are currently being investigated.
While examining the tools or weapons used by the Solutrean people of the Old World and the Clovis people of ancient North America, I found striking similarities. The flint tips used to kill game appear almost identical. It is almost as if the Clovis people were either descendants or students of the Solutrean people. (Compare pictures of their arrowheads, above.)
Patrick Stewart (Star Trek's "Captain Picard"): Kennewick Man look-alike
Tom McClelland of Richland, WA, shows the skull casting of the Kennewick Man he and anthropologist Jim Chatters used to re-create the facial features of the 9,200-year-old discovery.
Caucasoid Life in North America
Caucasoid traits in the Kennewick Man -- with his long narrow face, slight overbite, prominent chin, and an ancient spear point in his hip (possibly from an enemy tribe), he looked much like Patrick Stewart, the Captain John Luke Picard of the Television series 'Star Trek'10 -- and other recent finds (revealed throughout the rest my research) challenge the conventional view that the first settlers of the Americas were Asian predecessors of Indians (the Beringian Bridge theory). The Fork Rock Cave in Oregon has been in the middle of ongoing new discoveries. The cave itself is small -- only thirty-five feet wide and sixty-five feet long. It was here in 1938 that about seventy pairs of sandals made of sagebrush were discovered by Luther S. Cressman.11 Radio-carbon dating technology dated the sandals at nine thousand years old (fortunately, the sandals were preserved until radio-carbon dating was invented). Charcoal was also found with a radio-carbon date indicating it was thirteen thousand two-hundred years old.12 The sagebrush sandals were intricately woven, and the other items found in the cave included projectile points, scrapers, drills, a wooden trigger for a trap, small pieces of basketry and awls to make leather (or tailored clothing for kinfolk of the Kennewick man), all of which indicated skilled workers.13 These differ vastly from Indian artifacts both in ancient North America and in modern Indian findings.
Douglas Owsley, Division Head of Physical Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) in Washington D.C., has examined all of the seven well-preserved skeletons found in North America and found that they all have Caucasoid features in common. These seven different skeletons with Caucasoid features were found at seven different sites and at different periods of time. The Kennewick man, one of the seven, has an ancient Indian spearhead wound in his hip.14 All found came from the period near the end of the later glacial era, during which the Clovis people disappeared - a fact which strengthens the argument that these Caucasoid skeletons were related to the Clovis people.
How the Clovis People Came to North America
The Beringian Bridge theory holds that large bands of Proto-Mongoloids (or those whom the politically correct romanticize as "Native Americans") migrated over a land bridge connecting the two continents twelve to fourteen thousand years ago. The Kennewick Man, the above-mentioned sandals, and other objects (or tools) -- all unrelated to Indian findings -- suggest that "Native Americans" were not alone in the mass migration. Is it possible to say that people came from both Asia and Europe and met? Or even that the Caucasoids, who evolved in the far north along the glacial fronts, were actually the first to cross the land bridge or the (then) short water distances to North America? I think so. At a professional conference at the end of October 1999, two prominent archeologists, Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradley, suggested that the Solutrean people crossed the Atlantic from what is now northern Spain and southern France about 18,000 years ago and settled in North America, establishing what is now called the "Clovis" culture. This construction of the evidence is strongly supported by projectile points and other correspondences between the two cultures. We know that humans had been sailing around the Pacific for thousands of years prior to the appearance of the Clovis culture, so it is no great stretch of the imagination to suppose that the Solutreans used skin boats to cross the much smaller Atlantic in perhaps as little as three weeks. The fact that the shared Solutrean-Clovis technology appears at the same time in both Solutrea and Clovis - and nowhere else - strongly bolsters the idea that we are looking at two branches of the same people: a Caucasoid people.
Another discovery in Central Asia also shows some Clovis burial traits. This eighteen-thousand-year-old grave, the burial site of two children near Lake Baikal in Siberia on what could have been a route to North America, is very similar to what appears to be the grave of two cremated children found in a Montana excavation; both interments also had evidence of mammoth bones surrounding the bodies (a cult practice of the Clovis people).15
Evolutionary BranchingAt this point it would be helpful to give some idea of the general outlines of human evolution, to be able to see the peopling of the Americas in its larger context. The prehistory of our species follows the general evolutionary pattern: there was not simply one, but many different branches of the higher primate category. Diversification of types was the norm and, contrary to liberal wish-dreams, they did not cross-breed. Homo Erectus of eastern Asia a million years ago, for example, is not an ancestor of modern man, no matter what the anti-evolutionary miscegenationists would like to believe. It is most unlikely that even the closely-related Homo Neanderthalensis interbred with early Homo Sapiens, despite what some recent Portuguese anthropologists have claimed. The following table shows some of the continuous, seemingly haphazard branching (speciation) which led to our emergence.
|1||Ardipiþecus ramidus||4.4 million||Eþiopia (Aramis)|
|2||Australopiþecus anamensis||4.2 million||norðern Kenya|
|3||Australopiþecus afarensis||2.8-3.0 million||east Africa|
|4||Australopiþecus bahrelghazali||3.5-3.0 million||Chad|
|3.3 million||souðern Africa|
|6||Australopiþecus africanus||3.0-2.0 million||souðern Africa|
|7||Australopiþecus garhi||2.5 million||Eþiopia|
|8||Paranþropus aeþiopicus||2.5 million||norðern Kenya|
|eastern & souðern Africa|
(East Turkana in Kenya)
|eastern & souðern Africa|
(East Turkana in Kenya)
|11||Paranþropus boisei||2.0-1.4 million|
(East Turkana in Kenya)
(created stone hand axe)
|1.9-1.8||East Turkana in Kenya|
|13||Paranþropus robustus||1.6||Souþ Africa|
|14||Paranþropus crassidens||1.6||Souþ Africa|
|15||hominids of some kind||1.8||China & Java; also|
at Dmanisi in Georgia
|16||Homo erectus||1.0 million-40,000||Java, China|
|18||Homo heidelbergensis||600,000-200,000||Africa, ðen Europe;|
|19||Homo neanderþalensis||200,000-30,000||Europe, western Asia|
(created language about 40,000 years ago and subsequently exterminated Homo neanderþalensis)
|200,000-present||Africa, ðen worldwide|
This table shows the wandering, radiative nature of evolution whose explorations of ecological niches eventually led to us. This speciation into the various races of homo sapiens is continued in the variation into the subspecies we call "races" which precede full differentiation into separate species.
In recent months, the unrelenting media and political pressure to construct a "multi-racial" Kennewick Man has begun to affect even Dr. Jim Chatters. He has reacted like the countless Christian biblical researchers who disbelieve in the resurrection of Christ. When asked whether they believe in it or not, they quickly change the topic to the "real" meaning of Jesus (which somehow always turns out to be politically correct). Similarly, Dr. Chatters is now claiming that Kennewick Man is "an ancestor of all of us." In contradiction to his own findings about the bones, he has even gone to the extreme of inventing a new face for Kennewick Man with an "Indian" nose in order to please the media and the propaganda masters.
Despite such obscurantist, liberaloid blather and contortions, it is ridiculous to view the branch represented by Kennewick Man as somehow belonging to American Indians or not being Caucasoid. And it is impossible for Kennewick Man to have been an "ancestor of all of us," since he and eventually his tribe were exterminated by the Indians. (Of course, facts have never been important to the anti-White racial miscegenationists dominating modern American culture; only propaganda matters.)
Pragmatic reasoning vs. Oral History Telling
Today, with new archaeological findings and scientific research, it does seem evident that both a European People (the Clovis People) and Proto-Mongoloids (Indians) migrated to the Americas in similar movements (and time). But what happened to the Clovis people? Were they pushed out by the Proto-Mongoloids?
These questions have spawned much controversy, mainly because it may impact "Native American" rights and, above all, government money from non-"Native American" taxpayers. The "Native (?) Americans" argue that the Kennewick man and other skeletons should be buried under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990. But with the new evidence, it is now clear that the Kennewick Man cannot belong to any existing tribe, and scientists should be allowed to study the skeleton under the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979. Scientists and "Native American" tribes are continuing their battle in court, but regardless of the legal outcome (which depends on politics, not truth) we can start rethinking and rewriting ancient North American history as to who the first settlers on the continent were and what happened to some of them.
North American Indians believe in storytelling as not only a traditional but an accurate method of transmitting their history. Armand Minthorn, a tribal religious leader for the Umatillas tribe, stated that "from our oral histories we know that we have been a part of this land since the beginning of time ... Our elders have told us that Indian people did not always look the way we look today ... We already know our history. It is passed on to us through our elders and through our religious practices."16 Given this interpretation of knowledge and truth, it is no wonder that the cultures of Mr. Minthorn's ancestors and of other Native Americans remain at such a pitiably low level even after having been exposed to White civilization for centuries.
According to the logic and scientific findings of the White man, the oral transmission of history can be distorted and much of it forgotten if it is not written. (This is so regardless of the obvious fears Indians have about their mythology being labeled as fantasy and about the possibility -- some would say probability -- of their ancestors having committed genocide against Whites.) We must find out the truth of human history; the past holds the records of many problems that plague us now and that may plague us in the future. It may be immoral to some to study the bones of the dead. But the same "Native American" people who have called this "immoral," for religious or other reasons, also put cedar chips and leaves into the wooden box which held the Kennewick Man's remains; they thereby introduced matter which could damage the ancient relics. They also put other bones into the Kennewick Man's box to make others believe that this discovery was a hoax.17 Not only this, but several of the bones in the care of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Batelle Institute, Building S-5 ("Sigma Five") in Richland, Washington, mysteriously disappeared. Naturally, the Corps blamed it on Dr. Chatters, in spite of the fact that all the evidence clearly indicates that the bones' disappearance was due to the anti-White attitude of the Corps in letting the Indians physically handle the bones. (The Corps did not, of course, show this same deference to the Whites of the Asatru religion, who believe the Kennewick Man to have been an early Caucasoid). Such acts of vandalism are now hopefully being prevented and proper methods of storing the bones are finally being used. As far as Indians' assertions about (White) scientists' "immorality," are concerned, we may say that scientific study of these antique bones is moral if it can be used for the good of man.
Under the orders of U.S. Magistrate John Jelderks in Portland, on Friday, October 30, 1998, the Kennewick Man's bones were finally removed from the jurisdiction of the anti-White U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and transferred to the Burke Museum in Seattle. (This was done even though a Burke curator had sent the concerned scientists an offensive e-mail “that was replete with insult, misinformation and accusation,” according to the scientists.) Located on the campus of the ultra-liberal and extremely anti-White University of Washington, the Burke Museum is nonetheless a major national resource for information on the natural and cultural history of the Pacific Northwest.
Finally the scientists got a chance to study the remains. Dr. Jane Richards concluded that the Kennewick Man appears to have the same skull structure found in the remains of Marmes Man (found at the Marmes cave site on the Snake River in Washington state). If this is borne out by forensic pathologists, then a pre-Indian migration of non-Mongoloid peoples can be demonstrated. This would certainly not answer all the questions, but it would be a start and maybe an impetus to archaeologists to continue the much needed study and excavations in both eastern Washington state and eastern Oregon (providing financial blocks to applications for rescue archaeology are removed).
From the beginning, some scientists were of the view that Kennewick Man and the Marmes relics most closely resemble the Ainu of Japan - an early Caucasoid people which was the original race of Japan, pre-dating the Mongoloid types now predominant in that land. After much delay, the government agents from Seattle's Burke Museum admitted that the Kennewick Man was indeed closest to the Ainu -- but they hastened to say that his traits were also shared to some extent by the Polynesians of the South Pacific. (This latter would have come about as a result of later racial miscegenation between Ainu and Polynesians.) The truth-hating mass media claimed that the Burke investigators had found the Kennewick Man to be "Asian," thereby suggesting to the uninformed that he was Mongoloid rather than Caucasoid. After all, the people (and specifically Whites) have to be protected from the truth. Nonetheless, it did slip out that Kennewick Man was -- and is -- totally unrelated to any modern American Indian type. So much for the American Indian Movement's mythology about the ancestors of the Indians springing up out of the ground like mushrooms and the Kennewick Man being one of them. Of course, the subspecies of White neurotics known euphemistically as "liberals" is riven by cognitive dissonance over these findings. Such a thing cannot, in the dominant anti-White view they espouse, be true. It will have to be suppressed. Unfortunately, the liberals and their many corporate supporters may have the power to do this, since they control such organizations as the Army Corps of Engineers and, apparently, the Burke Museum in Seattle.
At the beginning of December 1999, the Associated Press reported that the federal government and the Burke Museum were confessing to yet another delay in the release of investigatory results about the Kennewick Man. This time it was a delay in releasing dating-test results on the specious ground that the bones didn't have enough protein for good testing. In response, a Portland lawyer, Alan Schneider, representing eight anthropologists suing the government over the remains, pointed out that the government's agents should have done chemical analyses to determine which fragments were best for testing. The anthropologists also charged that the federal hirees took as much as 100 times as much bone as they need for testing. In other words, we can be sure the government has done its best to bias the results in favor of its pre-drawn conclusions. It is difficult to guess exactly what tack the government was trying to take here. Possibly they were trying to taint the bones in some way which would make it impossible to determine anything at all, so they could then give the "benefit of the doubt" to the Proto-Mongoloids. More likely, "our" government might also have been attempting to drag out and play down the whole issue of the Kennewick Man in the hope that Whites would forget all about this momentous discovery and the bones could be quietly buried with animal remains on some tribal reservation in Washington State. Your tax dollars at work.
In the second week of January, 2000, the results of yet more radio-carbon testing were finally allowed to seep out to the newspapers, TV and radio. The tests indicated an age of about 9,200 years before the present. In other words, no real difference from what had originally been determined three years previously. Or rather, the difference was in the government's obscuring of the truth through delays. The regime's lawyers then proceeded to argue that the skeleton should be betrayed to the Indians because it belonged "to a culture that predated the arrival of Columbus." In others words, since the perverse Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act ("NAGPRA") of 1990 claims that any remains dating to before Columbus' discovery of the New World are "Indian," the evidence that non-Indians inhabited the continent before 1492 must be destroyed.
So there you have it. The twisted logic of the regime now enables its psychobabbling functionaries to take the bones of, say, ancient Vikings found on Long Island and give them "back" to Redskins on the absurd basis that the Vikings were in North America before Columbus and therefore "must" be Indians. After this perversion of justice the financially weak Asatru Folk Assembly withdrew from the litigation, recognizing that the power of governmentally enforced lie can defeat all truth. The scientists continue to fight doggedly on. In early January, 2001, they claimed that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers violated the National Historic Preservation Act by plowing over the burial site where the 9,300-year-old skeleton had been found. In response, Corps officials lied that they had simply been "trying to keep looters away" from the site when they covered it with 500 tons of rocks and soil in 1998. The scientists pointed out that the Corps violated laws governing preservation of historical artifacts and risked ruining the original burial site. Of course, since the anti-White U.S. Government has all the money and power in the world, it doesn't take much insight to see what the outcome is going to be.
The scientists' persistence is all the more admirable in the face of the grotesque fraud perpetrated on Monday, September 25, 2000 by Bruce Babbit, the Secretary of the U.S. Interior Department. This spin artist meowed that "Although ambiguities in the data made this a close call, I was persuaded by the geographic data and oral histories of the five tribes that collectively assert they are descendants of people who have been in the region of the Upper Columbia Plateau for a very long time," according to the Associated Press. And with that pretext, he decided that Kennewick Man was to be given to five American Indian tribes who claim him as an ancestor. Luckily for the scientists, however, the haughty Babbit will not determine the fate of the skeleton; instead, they have continued to prosecute their lawsuit and, after the end of the corrupt Clinton administration and its lackeys, may just possibly win it.
On January 20, 2001, William Jefferson Clinton left office under much shame and disgrace, and the scientists were able to pursue their case without as much governmental harassment and obstruction as thitherto. On April 19, 2001 the Associated Press reported that they had filed documents in federal court showing that the Clinton regime, seeking to avoid a "messy" debate over just who the first human inhabitants of North America really were, had inexcusably and improperly allowed contacts between White House staff and members of a coalition of five American Indian tribes seeking to bury the skeleton. Further, the federal officials "coached the coalition on how to plead its case." These documents make even more manifest the criminality of the genosuicidal Left masterminded by the fatherless Clinton.
In the face of these political attempts to suppress truth, science marched on. On Tuesday, July 31, 2001, the news media carried a report by Guy Gugliotta of the Washington Post, "Evidence suggests earlier migration to America," with the subtitle, "STUDY: A more genetically diverse population is found," about the results of a new study on the early peopling of the Americas. It said the following:
"Ancient peoples only loosely related to modern Asians crossed the Arctic land bridge to settle America some 15,000 years ago, according to a study offering new evidence that the Western Hemisphere hosted a more genetically diverse population at a much earlier time than previously thought.
"The early immigrants most closely resembled the prehistoric Jomon people of Japan and their closest modern descendants, the Ainu, from the Japanese island of Hokkaido, the study said. Both the Jomon and Ainu have skull and facial characteristics more genetically similar to those of Europeans than to mainland Asians.
The immigrants settled throughout the hemisphere, and were in place when a second migration - from mainland Asia - came across the Bering Strait beginning 5,000 years ago and swept southward as far as modern-day Arizona and New Mexico, the study said. The second migration is the genetic origin of today's Eskimos, Aleuts and the Navajo of the U.S. southwest. The study in today's edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences adds new evidence to help settle one of anthropology's most contentious debates: Who were the first Americans? And when did they come?<
"When this has been done before, it's been done from one point of view," said University of Michigan physical anthropologist C. Loring Brace, who led the team of researchers from the United Statesina and r more dimensions.
"For decades, anthropologists' dogma held that the Americas were populated by a single migration from Asia around 11,200 years ago - the supposed age of the earliest of the elegantly crafted, grooved arrowheads first found in the 1930s at Clovis, N.M.By the end of the 1990s, however, the weight of evidence had pushed the date of the first arrivals back several thousand years. But as the migration timetable slipped, additional questions and controversies have arisen. The 1996 discovery in Kennew Caucasoid" features stimulated interest in the possibility of two or more migrations - including a possible influx from Europe.
"The new study attempted to answer this question by comparing 21 different skull and facial characteristics from more than 10,000 ancient and modern populations in both the Western Hemisphere and the old World. The findings provide strong new evidence supporting earlier work suggesting that anc who walked from Japan to the Asian mainland and eventually to the Western Hemisphere on land bridges as the Earth began to warm up about 15,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age"">
Kennewick Man, in short, is not an Amerind, but a representative of the eastern branch of the White or Caucasoid race. Ancient peoples only loosely related to modern Asians crossed the Arctic land bridge to settle America some 15,000 years ago, according to a study offering new evidence that the Western Hemisphere hosted a more genetically diverse population at a much earlier time than previously thought.The early immigrants most closely resembled the prehistoric J people of Japan and their closest modern descendants, the Ainu, from the Japanese island of Hokkaido, the study said. Both the Jomo and Ainu have skull and facial characte to those of Europeans than to mainland Asians.The immigrants settled throughout the hemisphere, and were in place when a second migration - from mainland Asia - came across the Bering Strait beginning 5,000 years ago and swept southward as far as modern-day Arizona and New Mexico, the study said. The second migration is the genetic origin of today's Eskimos, Aleuts and the Navajo of the U.S. southwest. The study in today's edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences adds new evidence to help settle one of anthropology's most contentious debates: Who were the first Americans? And when did they come?For decades, anthropologists' dogma held that the Americas were populated by a single migration from Asia around 11,200 years ago - the supposed age of the earliest of the elegantly crafted, grooved arrowheads first found in the 1930s at Clovis, N.M.By the end of the 1990s, however, the weight of evidence had pushed the date of the first arrivals back several thousand years. But as the migration timetable slipped, additional qumigrations - including a possible influx from Europe. >eastern branch of the White or Caucasoid race.
Finally, a word about the federal government itself. In the last decade or so, business and financial writers have talked a great deal about the "culture" of business organizations and how to change it. This topic should also be applied today to the "culture" of the American government. As is the case also with the major religions, the central psychodynamic of this organization is never mentioned in polite company. That psychodynamic is the insensate drive to push the White race to suicide through racial miscegenation while the U.S.-based oligarchy attains socio-economic domination of the entire globe. All kinds of irrelevant peripheral matters are raised to block any discussion thereof. And vituperation - the old ad hominem logical error - is the normal response to those who object to racial suicide. Since the unprecedented rise of the global economy masks the biological (to say nothing of the moral) destruction of the Caucasoid peoples, the majority of Whites is easily persuaded to go quietly into the eternal night. The inner circles of American power are keenly conscious of this reality. For they are the forces most eagerly seeking the Brave New World Order of mulattoism. Their strongest ally is the sick religion: Christianity. This creed, in all its denominations, claims that all Whites are "guilty" by virtue of their white skins. Non-Whites (the darker the better) must be "understood" if they act like animals. This, then, is the all-pervasive, government-led irrationality which seeks to turn the Caucasoid skeleton called the Kennewick Man over to Proto-Mongoloids.
Possible Causes of the Disappearance of the Clovis People
The ancient Indian spearhead wound in the Kennewick Mans' hip, and he himself, support the idea that his people as well as the Clovis people (assuming they were not the same) were European-type peoples who descended from the same eastern Caucasoid branch which gave rise to the indigenous Ainu of Japan and who coexisted in conflict with the Archaic Indians and/or the Paleo-Indians in North America during the later glacial era. The fact that the Ainu are in fact indigenous in Japan is another way of saying that they preceded the Mongoloids in inhabiting that island nation. Similarly, they are quite likely to have preceded the Mongoloids not only to Japan but also to North America using the same means of transportation in both cases: boats.18
Early man's hunt to extinction of large mammals
As the Kennewick and Clovis peoples ran out of large game in North America, the pressure to survive forced them to look to other strategies to cover their needs, one of them being territorial defense and offense. In conclusion, I propose three possibilities about why the these peoples vanished as mysteriously as they appeared: the first, which is the least likely, is that they starved with the inability to adjust to new methods of hunting; the second is a war with neighboring Indian tribes in which they were annihilated, which is probably the most common theory based on the historically high frequency of genocide;19 finally, the third possibility has them assimilating with coexisting North American Indian Tribes.
The possibility that the Caucasoids were starved out of existence is not really supported. There are plenty of food resources in the Pacific Northwest and in all of North America as well. Since the scientific testing already done on the Kennewick man shows he had a high marine diet (possibly salmon), together with the lush vegetation, buffaloes, caribou, elk, and deer, it seems improbable that his people could starve.
But the competition for food and land that arose with neighboring non-Caucasoids could have ignited hostilities that lasted several hundred years. As the extinction of big game forced all early Americans to develop new methods of hunting and gathering, the Caucasoids began to invade the territories of other peoples or found their territories invaded by them - invasions which prompted violent confrontations. Rising tensions between peoples led to wars. It is quite possible that the larger number of Indians, being different tribes themselves and often at war even with each other, more readily attacked the Caucasoids because they were easily identified as an enemy by their physical and racial differences. And thus the Red Man exterminated the White Man utterly.
To combat the serious research in recent years by various scientists now documenting the genetically based, great behavioral differences between races, liberal anti-White academics are now taking a new tack. There is, they assert, no such thing as race. They claim that the momentous racial differences in such areas as intelligence, brainwave frequency, mental endurance, law-abidingness, ability to defer gratification, and many other "mental" or even "spiritual" traits have sprung up in the last few thousand years of prehistory and cannot be considered "racial" differences. Therefore, on this view, behold! there are no races (except for purposes of affirmative action) at all.
This, of course, is little more than defining the issue of biological differences out of existence. A neat trick on the part of the academics. They get to have their cake and eat it, too. Racial differences are explained away as "cultural." Whites are defined as merely having (or being) cultures of evil, while non-Whites and mulattoes are romanticized as "victims" of the monstrous Whites. This interpretation has of course found a great deal of support among the race-suicidal components of the White population, which are concentrated in the media and academe. Redefinition of the facts allows them to obscure reality and justify their war on evolution.
As far as Indian "culture" is concerned. we may look at the earliest forms of civilization (city-systems) in the Americas, the Mayas and the Aztecs, for an example of the institutionalized violence and elaborate forms of human sacrifice already in the New World long before the Europeans arrived. The Aztecs, whose ancestors originally came from what is now the U.S. southwest (their language is related to that of the Navajos, and their own myths tell of their migration from the north), were savage warriors who wiped out many lesser tribes, sacrificing and eating many thousands of people at a time. The violent measures that were used by them did not just happen. Their cruel methods were taught, advanced and promoted through an elaborately constructed mythology.
Thirdly, we come to assimilation. This theory has its pros and cons. For assimilation, one can look to Indian oral history. Older Indians say that their ancestors looked physically much different than they look today. Assimilation would change their physical appearance and support their theory. Then there is the U.S. melting-pot ideology which holds that assimilation and the termination of evolution are inevitable, just and wonderful for everybody. But besides the decline of technology following the disappearance of the early American Caucasoids, there is still not very much evidence that Indian tribes, before the "melting pot" situation of modern America, had anything but Proto-Mongoloid genes. So if there was any Caucasoid admixture, it was quite small.
The Clovis people (whether or not they are related to the Kennewick Man) had advanced weaponry for hunting and most likely wore sandals and tailored clothes. David Owsley and other archaeologists and anthropologists have concluded that these technological achievements are completely unrelated to anything developed by Proto-Mongoloids.
We are left, it seems to me, with the scenario of genocidal wars. This was the cause of the disappearance of the Clovis people which anthropologists were at a loss to explain until three years ago. But with the incredible discovery of the Kennewick Man, history on the North American continent can now be rethought and rewritten.
Skull cast and restored face of Kennewick Man
Dr. James Chatters
Appendix: Paranormal Experiences of Dr. James Chatters in Connection with Kennewick ManAlthough anything called "paranormal" has been anathema to the official scientific establishment in modern times, Dr. Chatters has had some experiences involving the Kennewick Man which can only be described as uncanny.
To begin with, it must be remarked that among scientists, forensic specialists and others who work with the bones of the dead, it is not at all unusual to get a "feel" for the personality of the former owner of those bones. Those who experience this phenomenon are quite aware of the fact that they are encountering the spiritual essence of another person. Thus it was with Dr. Chatters. He came to "know" the Kennewick Man as a human being, not just as a pile of bones. This knowledge is normally sensed through the slow-brainwave faculty of memory, which captures much more than merely personal experiences. That is to say, our memory not only takes in information from our daily life experiences, but also from the "mental" infrastructure of existence, which remembers all events.
In addition, one day when Dr. Chatters was handling the Kennewick Man skull, he was looking at it from the rear. Now it so happens that the back of the skull is missing, so that when you view it from behind, you can see through the skull and the eye sockets to the other side. As he was doing this, he suddenly found himself looking at the room with the Kennewick Man's own eyes! He had become momentarily "identified" with the Kennewick Man.
Afterwards, when he would drive along the highways through the semi-arid landscape of Eastern Washington in his car, he found himself inexplicably feeling a mysterious attraction to that landscape, as though he needed to be out there doing something. Just as the Kennewick Man had done so many thousands of years before.
When the politicized Army Corps of Engineers demanded possession of the bones, it was a sad day for Dr. Chatters. However, when he learned that the Indians were demanding to bury the bones with their own kind, he felt something far worse: sheer, inexplicable panic. This feeling of panic was not something that came from Dr. Chatters himself. It flooded him from a dimension beyond our world. He was feeling the terror of the Kennewick Man himself when faced with the prospect of being confined with his ancient mortal enemies, the Indians. Irrational? Yes. Like the irrational terror felt when suddenly faced by a murderer aiming a lethal weapon at you.
Finally, Dr. Chatters admits to having other paranormal experiences related to Kennewick Man. He will not say what these experiences are, so that others can only guess. One guess is that he has actually experienced apparitions of this ancient representative of the Caucasoid race, apparitions which made clear to him that the truth about the early peopling of the Americas must be made known, and that the suppression of reality in favor of some romantic notion of Redskin "noble savages" must be ended.
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