Saturday, December 19, 2009
One of the early stone tools from Wonderwerk Cave. (Credit: Photo M. Chazan)
Archaeological Discovery: Earliest Evidence Of Our Cave-Dwelling Human Ancestors
ScienceDaily (Dec. 21, 2008) — A research team led by Professor Michael Chazan, director of the University of Toronto's Archaeology Centre, has discovered the earliest evidence of our cave-dwelling human ancestors at the Wonderwerk Cave in South Africa.
Stone tools found at the bottom level of the cave — believed to be 2 million years old — show that human ancestors were in the cave earlier than ever thought before. Geological evidence indicates that these tools were left in the cave and not washed into the site from the outside world.
Archaeological investigations of the Wonderwerk cave — a South African National Heritage site due to its role in discovering the human and environmental history of the area — began in the 1940s and research continues to this day.
Using a combination of dating methods it has been possible to date the bottom level reached by Peter Beaumont in the front part of the cave to 2 million years ago.
A small number of very small stone tools have been recovered from excavations in this level. Geological evidence indicates that these tools were deposited in the cave by human ancestors, not washed into the site from the outside.
The combination of stone tools indicating the presence of human ancestors and the dating of the level leads to the conclusion that human ancestors (hominids) were in the cave 2 million years ago. This is the earliest evidence for intentional cave occupation by human ancestors.
There were a number of species of hominids in southern Africat 2 million years ago. The most likely candidate as the manufacturer of the stone tools found at Wonderwerk is Homo habilis.
The oldest known stone tools from sites in Ethiopia date to 2.4 million years. The Wonderwerk Cave discoveries are those close in age to the very earliest known stone tools and similar in date to the bottom levels at Olduvai Gorge.
How the site was dated
The deposits at Wonderwerk Cave built up over time so that the deeper one excavates the layers become older. The trick is to figure out exactly how old the levels are. We used two methods that together provide a secure date.
For Paleomagnetic Dating Hagai Ron of the Hebrew University took small samples of soil from the entire sequence (over fifty samples). These samples allow him to measure changes in he earth’s magnetic field and to correlate the Wonderwerk sequence with a global timescale for changes in the magnetic field (known as reversals).
For Cosmogenic Burial Age Ari Matmon, also from the Hebrew University, took soil samples and carefully prepared them in the lab. He then sent these samples to an atomic accelerator in the United States where a procedure to measure isotopes, much like the method used in carbon dating, was carried out. Unlike carbon dating, Cosmogenic Burial Age dating can provide very old dates.
Why was this so difficult? Most well dated early sites are in East Africa where there are volcanic ash layers that can be dated using the Argon method. In southern Africa we lack these ash layers so that we need to develop new methods. The first use of Cosmogenic Burial Age dating in South Africa was at the Cradle of Humankind. Our results show the value of this method, particularly when combined with Paledating, for archaeological research both in the region and globally.
About Wonderwerk Cave
The Wonderwerk Cave is located in Northern Cape Province, South Africa between Danielskuil and Kuruman. The cave formed by water action in the Dolemite rocks of the Asbestos Hills. This rock formation is over 2 billion years old, some of the oldest rock on earth, so we do not know when exactly the cave formed.
The cave runs 130 meters from front to back. Wonderwerk discovered was discovered when local farmers dug up large parts of the cave in the 1940’s to sell the sediments for fertilizer. Subsequently a series of brief archaeological excavations began. Peter Beaumont of the McGregor Museum carried out major excavations at the site between 1978-1993.
Chimps Have Been Found Using Caves For Shelter
ScienceDaily (Apr. 12, 2007) — Chimpanzees in Senegal apparently have much in common with our earliest human ancestors.
A month after Iowa State University Assistant Professor of Anthropology Jill Pruetz reported chimpanzees at her Fongoli research site are using spear-shaped tools to hunt, her new study indicates those same chimps are also seeking shelter in caves to get out of the extreme African heat. The National Geographic Society-funded research is the first to document regular chimpanzee cave use.
Pruetz' paper, titled "Evidence of Cave Use by Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal: Implications for Behavioral Thermoregulation," will be published in an upcoming issue of Primates, a professional journal.
The paper reports that the chimpanzees' cave use was based primarily on indirect evidence -- feeding traces, feces and hairs -- gathered from one cave from January through December 2004. Supplemental data from observational records was also collected from May 2001 through March 2006. Pruetz has also witnessed the chimps entering and exiting the cave.
"I talked about it (chimps using caves) at a meeting in Japan several years ago. I just kind of reported it and everyone was amazed," she said. "They thought it was great and nobody had ever heard anything like it, except that Jane Goodall actually came up to me after the talk and she said that she heard an incident in Mali where someone was doing a chimp survey and they surprised a bunch of chimps coming out of a cave. But that's the only other instance that anyone, as far as I know, has ever heard of it."
Chimps use caves to avoid African heat
In the paper, Pruetz concludes that the chimps' cave use is a response to heat at her Fongoli research site. She collected data on temperatures within Sakoto cave -- the largest cave within her site -- as well as the different habitats used by chimpanzees, such as gallery forest and woodland.
Her research found that chimps primarily use Sakoto cave as shelter during the hottest and driest times of the year, from October through May. The cave is several meters deep and located at the head of a shallow ravine, which was formed through water runoff from a plateau. Between 2001 and 2004, average annual daily temperature within the Sakoto cave was 24.2 degrees Celsius, compared with 29.6 degrees in the woodland habitat and 24.6 in grassland habitat -- both located approximately 30 meters from the cave and at the edge of the Sakoto ravine. Pruetz attributes the lower grassland temperature to wind. In the Sakoto gallery forest habitat approximately 20 meters from the cave, temperatures averaged 26.4 degrees Celsius.
"It seems very much cooler when you go into the cave, but I wanted to make sure I took temperature measurements in the cave and different habitats," said Pruetz. "It is significantly cooler in the cave and the only time they (chimps) use the cave is during the dry season when you have the hottest temperatures outside.
"They're (chimps) just using it as a way to avoid the heat," she said. "They just lie in there and rest. They'll bring food in and eat it in there, and groom. They sort of just hang out and relax."
Maximum temperatures produce primate heat stress
Pruetz wrote in the article that maximum temperatures may be a more important measure of heat stress to primates than average temperatures. And that stress may be what's driving the chimps into the caves, although the explanation may not be that simple.
"While cave use by Fongoli chimpanzees appears to correlate with temperature, a number of factors probably work in association to influence this behavior, underscoring the complexity of the relationship between climate, habitat, and the behavior of hominoids inhabiting a dry, open environment," she wrote.
But maybe it shouldn't be so surprising that chimpanzees are using caves after all.
"It shouldn't be surprising that chimps are using caves," said Pruetz. "If you look at the scientific name of the chimps, the species name is troglodytes, which means cave-dwelling."
Pruetz will return to Senegal in May. She and her Iowa State graduate students plan to measure relative humidity in the different habitats used in this research.
The study was supported by grants from the National Geographic Society, National Science Foundation, Leakey Foundation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Great Ape Conservation Grant, Primate Conservation Inc., and Iowa State University.
Labels: early cave dwellers
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